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Preparatory Section Soyabean – Flow Diagram

Operational steps for Preparatory for Soya Beans

1. Seed cleaning

Seed cleaning for removal of light and heavier impurities from feed materials This is an important step in the preparatory section for removal of fines, soil, and silica to minimize wear and tear of downward equipment using simple vibratory screens with aspiration. Cleaning is done in the multi-deck seed cleaner. The Cleaner is composed of various sizes of screens designed to segregate the different fractions. The aspiration system along with cleaner is used to remove light particles and loose hulls. The light material is then separated from the air in the cyclone. The Cleaned seeds are then sent to De-stoner for further processing.

 2. De-stoning

The main purpose of De-stoner is to remove seed-sized stones which have not been separated by screening. De-stoner works on the principle of difference in density to separate heavy stones from lighter seeds. De-stoner consists of a vibratory system with an aspiration system that works on the fluidization principle.

 3. Cracking section

The purpose of cracking is to primarily reduce the particle size sufficiently to ensure uniform cooking without producing an excessive quantity of fines. Cracking/breaking is achieved either in roller mill (Two pair fluted mill). Also Braked seeds reduce the power required for subsequent processing steps.

 4. Partial De-hulling

The process consists of hulls separation from cracked materials. De-hulling is done in the multi-deck seed separator. The de-huller is composed of various sizes of screens designed to segregate the different fractions. The aspiration system along with the de-huller is used to remove de-hulled loose hulls.

 5. Pre-conditioning

Pre-conditioning of cleaned partially de-hulled materials to desire temperature
To objectives of cooking-Conditioning are:
To rupture oil cells by flushing off intrinsic moisture as steam.

1. To decrease the viscosity of the oil, making it easier to remove.
2. To coagulate protein in seeds.
3. To sterilize the seed by destroying enzyme activity and preventing the growth of moulds or bacteria.

 6. Flaking

Flaking of pre-conditioned material soil Extraction is done by passing the seed between smooth rolls to produce flakes of 0.25-0.3 mm. Flaking serves to reduce the cell structure and make the oil more readily available to the press. Flaking increases the surface area available for the extraction of oil. Flaker consisting of one pair (two rolls) chilled cast iron rolls mounted on heavy-duty roller bearing. The machine consists of a permanent magnet for entrapping any iron particles. The equipment is provided with a gap adjusting arrangement (hydraulic cylinders) for maintaining the gap between two rolls.

7. Expander system

The flakes are transferred to Expander for preparation of collets and collets are transferred to Cooler for cooling the collets to up to 600 C before delivering to Extractor Feed Hopper.


The Main Equipment’s in Preparatory Process

Redler Conveyor


The Redler conveyor or drag chain is mainly characterized for its great capacity for, preferably, horizontal transport over long distances of a high percentage of bulk materials, that could be: cereals, seeds, flours, and definitively any grain product, allowing unloading throughout its length, adapting to different processes.



This elevator permits the vertical transport of any bulk product with low percentages of humidity and average grain size. The transport is performed using buckets (carbon steel or stainless steel) or PVC, fixed on the belt with screws and staples. The discharge head incorporates the operation of the conveyor, always with an anti-return system.



The selection of each piece of equipment is very important. Every seed has a different type of structure and size and accordingly equipment is designed and selected. Every step is co-related with other equipment as the cleaning of seeds is a continuous process.



A destoner is a machine used for separating dry granular material according to specific weight into two fractions. The goal is the elimination of heavy impurities, such as stones, metallic particles, and other objects from, for example, coffee, grain, or pulses..



The seed cracker machine has a unique design. It can be used for cracking various oilseeds such as Soyabean seeds, Sunflower oilseeds, Palm kernels, Argan oilseeds, etc. The seed to be cracked into smaller pieces is fed through the feeder opening. The cracked seeds come out from the opening duct. They now have uniformity in size and can be easily used in expellers or mechanical presses to extract the maximum oil.



Dehulling is the process of removing the hulls (or chaff) from beans and other seeds. This is sometimes done using a machine known as a huller. To prepare the seeds to have oils extracted from them, they are cleaned to remove any foreign objects.



The cooking process is vital to the pre-treatment of some oilseeds. It consists of heating the seed and reducing the moisture content.
The cooking operation is usually carried out in a stacked cooker, a vertical design where the seed moves down through steam-heated trays, each with its own stirrer system mounted on a common vertical shaft. The diameter of the stack and the number of trays depends on the capacity required and the seed being processed. A small quantity of direct steam can be injected at the top trays to heat the seed and improve the rupturing of the oil-bearing cells. After that, the steam coming from the vaporization of the seed moisture is sufficient. The stirrers agitate the material to ensure uniform cooking and provide a means for transferring meals through successive compartments.



The flaking mill is designed for the flaking of cracked soybeans and soft seeds such as sunflower kernels, rapeseed, and corn (maize) germs. Other seeds and a wide range of different raw materials can also be processed. Mode of operation. The raw material is homogenized in the integrated mixer and – with the assistance of a variable frequency drive (VFD) controlled feed roll – equally distributed into the roll nip. Large diameter rolls (Ø 800 mm) guarantee an optimal product.


The expander is used to form soybean flakes into a dense, yet highly porous structure for improved extraction efficiency in the extractor. Inside of the expander the soybean is shredded and mixed into a fluidized mass. Steam is injected to cook the proteins and starches, as well as to elevate the temperature above the boiling point of water. At the discharge, a cone or die plate with circular openings is used to generate even higher pressures and to form the material into a rope of material about ½” in diameter (10-12 mm). As the hot material, above 220-240°f (105-115°c), exits the high-pressure environment of the expander, the drop in pressure causes the super-heated water to quickly vaporize off of the material. As the water escapes, it forms a network of pores throughout the material that is conducive to solvent permeation through the solid. The escaping steam draws a lot of heat off of the material, which causes the now cooked proteins and starches to harden into a firm structure. Additional cooling in a forced air vessel further solidifies the product and assures the material is below the boiling point of the solvent before it is sent to the extractor.



Pellet cooling is a dynamic process that involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer between the pellets and the cooling air. Pellet cooling occurs as a result of both evaporative cooling and convective cooling. Evaporative cooling is the transfer of water from the pellets to the air which results in both moisture reduction and cooling in the pellets.

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